Genetic fingerprinting, DNA testing, DNA typing, and DNA profiling are techniques used to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA. Its invention by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester was announced in 1985. Two humans will have the vast majority of their DNA sequence in common. Genetic fingerprinting exploits highly variable repeating sequences called microsatellites. Two unrelated humans will be likely to have different numbers of microsatellites at a given locus. By using PCR to detect the number of repeats at several loci, it is possible to establish a match that is extremely unlikely to have arisen by coincidence, except in the case of identical twins, who will have identical genetic profiles.
Fast Fact on the DNA: What is the DNA?
Among the most basic similar components of living organisms is the DNA. Standing for deoxyribonucleic acid, the DNA is housed in each cell of the living body. It holds the hereditary gene of humans and of other organisms. Understanding the function of the DNA can be done by looking at it as a storage of personal information. This information that is contained in each DNA represents the identity of the creature from which the DNA was taken.
Where can the DNA be found?
The development of powerful microscopes that could determine very minute bodies was instrumental in the detection of the DNA. While our primary instruction of the body, organs, tissues and cells concluded at the discussion of the nucleus and its surrounding membranes, more can actually found in each cell. The DNA is the elementary block that can be found in two areas in the cell: the nucleus and the mitochondria. Majority of the DNA in the body are found in the nucleus, thus the term nuclear DNA. A relatively small number of DNA is found in the mitochodria. These two types of DNA classified according to where they can be found are often referred to as nDNA and mDNA. The DNA holds the genetic pattern that is unique to every individual.
How is information stored in the DNA?
The DNA stores the information of each living body through base pairs. These base pairs can be further divided into its simple form, that is, the chemical bases. The body has four chemical bases, namely, Cytosine (C), Adenine (A), Guanine (G) and Thymine (T). These four chemical bases pair with each other forming units. Chemical base A pairs with T while C pairs with G. This pairing assignment is based on the Watson-Crick base pairing. Each base unit draws a phosphate molecule and a sugar molecule and into its structure. The structure formed by these four components is called a nucleotide. Each nucleotide then connects to other nucleotides forming a ladder-like strand. The connection between two nucleotides is made possible by a hydrogen bond. The DNA is composed of two long strings of nucleotides that twist forming a double helix. It is through these structures that the DNA holds its unique information. the coiling of the DNA is further classified into positive and negative “supercoiling.” A positive coiling is that wheren the DNA strand is twirled towards a helix with the base pairs bonded tightly. A negative coiling is simply the opposite with the DNA strand twisted towards the opposing course and the nucleotides held loosely.
What is the fundamental property of the DNA?
The fundamental property of the DNA is replication. The ability of the DNA to replicate is important in the process of cell division as each cell should have the same pattern of nucleotide sequence to maintain the information that the DNA holds.
What is the truth behind DNA testing?
One of the critical things related to knowing the DNA and grasping its importance is DNA testing. This process is done to discern the parallelism of two or more DNAs. Thus, DNA testing can tell if two individuals are related or if they come from the same genetic line.
Read more about DNA testing.